Oct 26th 2014

Moral Ambiguity: Why We Make Art

by Mary L. Tabor

Mary L. Tabor worked most of her life so that one day she would be able to write full-time. She quit her corporate job when she was 50, put on a backpack and hiking boots to trudge across campus with folks more than half her age. She’s the author of the novel Who by Fire, the memoir (Re)Making Love: a sex after sixty story and the collection of connected short stories The Woman Who Never Cooked. She’s a born and bred liberal who writes lyric essays on the arts for one of the most conservative papers in the country and she hosts a show interviewing authors on Rare Bird Radio. In the picture Mary L.Tabor

Why attempt to create art, I ask, to make something “other” when faced with the dilemmas of existence, with, as I’ve said in one of my own short stories, “all the ways that life betrays the living?”

I’ve written here on Facts and Arts three personal essays on my re-readings of Kafka's The Trial, Virginia Woolf's To the Lighthouse and “Goodness in Leopold Bloom,” my re-reading of Joyce’s Ulysses. These three novels written in the first quarter of the 20th Century, reflect the movement of philosophical thought of the period—and particularly, I argue here, the influence of Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900).

In this essay I hope to pull together my thoughts on the struggle for meaning, for a narrative in our lives, and to explore my question, Why make art? I do this not from the perspective of a philosopher, but from that of a writer of fiction and literary memoir and from the perspective of my own search for a moral framework—for a narrative of hope.

Each of the novels I’ve re-read explores the struggle for meaning in the midst of moral ambiguity and expresses a longing for a return of some sort—what I name here, as hope—while also recognizing that the path may never be clear.

In my work, I have found myself turning again and again to Friedrich Nietzsche’s works.

I think the reason is that Nietzsche questioned the very foundation of the moral thought that preceded him. Here is likely his most oft quoted assertion: “‘Whither is God,’ he cried. ‘I shall tell you. We have killed him—you and I. … God is dead.’” (1)

I quote him not as a non-believer, but as a searcher. I’m Jewish by heritage and tradition—not observant, not even as well-schooled as I could be, but a believer nonetheless.

Nietzsche again:  “‘[W]ill to truth’ does not mean ‘I will not let myself be deceived’ but—there is no choice—‘I will not deceive, not even myself’: and with this we are on the ground of morality—of being “truthful at last.”

Nietzsche’s questioning resonates for me because I believe all his work asks the primal question, Is a coherent narrative for our lives possible? And if we have no clear answer to that question, what then?

The three novels I’ve re-read and discussed here on Facts and Arts, reflect the philosophical struggle that comprises the loss of that coherence and the moral ambiguity that brings to our lives.

In all three novels, I see an unfulfilled longing for moral unity for this reason: A search, a longing, characterizes the forward movement of each of the novels.

To clarify the ground I’m on, I turn to formidable critics on these works who agree that the modernist writer moved inward and away from society.

The critic Peter Faulkner argues that “modernist writers fail to see man socially and historically, and so make his alienation, which is a social process, into an absolute.” (2)

The critic Randall Stevenson argues, “Once narrative places ‘everything in the mind’, a sense of significance can be restored to individuals: it becomes once again possible to consider ‘what a terrific thing a person is’—regardless of how diminished … their actual lives in the modern industrial world may be.” (3)

The critic Stephen Spender expressed starkly the move away from society: “In the works of the most characteristically modern writers contemporary civilization was represented as chaotic, decadent, on the point of collapse, anarchic, absurd, the desert of non-values.” (4)

I don’t agree with Spender’s view as it relates to Woolf and Joyce, but I think he’s right about where Kafka leads us. And Kafka, most certainly of the three novelists I discuss here, was an adherent of Nietzsche.

The critic Gerhard Kurz notes the importance of Nietzsche to Kafka: “The study of Kafka’s relation to Nietzsche was long obstructed by Max Brod’s [friend, biographer and literary executor of Kafka’s body of work] denial of such an influence. The relation first came to light in 1954, when Erich Heller named Nietzsche as Kafka’s ‘intellectual predecessor.’ [Kurz explains that Kafka met Nietzsche through his friend Oskar Pollak.].” Kurz asserts, “Kafka remained faithful to Nietzsche’s thinking until death.” (5)

Nietzsche’s Thus Spake Zarathrustra is referenced three times by Joyce in Ulysses, showing, at the very least, that Joyce had read Nietzsche; as an aside, I note that Walter Kaufmann in his introduction to his translation of Nietzsch links the two for their affinity for play on words. (6)

Admittedly, I could find no indication in my critical search that Virginia Woolf had studied Nietzsche, but considering how well-read she was, I find it hard to believe she was unaware of his work.

The critic Ihab Hassan characterizes the nihilism in Nietzsche’s work that illuminates the dilemma I explore here. Hassan notes: “Existentialism, we know, plumbs the solitude of man. It follows through the nihilism of Nietzsche, denies all essences, all a priories in the human condition, and achieves a transvaluation of values despite itself.” (7)

This, in my view, is the dilemma that Woolf, Joyce and Kafka address: how to decide what one ought to do when one is alone, separated from society, and when one believes that society may not offer a set of shared values that work.

All three novels separate their characters from society. Virginia Woolf in her essay “On Being Ill,” said, “Human beings do not go hand in hand the whole stretch of the way. … Here we go alone, and like it better so.” (8)

In To the Lighthouse, Mrs. Ramsay looks out on the constant stroke of the Lighthouse and says inside her head, “It will end, it will end.” (p. 63) She addresses the question of existence and asks herself, “What did it all mean? To this day she had no notion.” (p. 105) The novel’s middle section, “Time Passes,” separates the action of the novel and all the characters from society. The inexorable power of time and nature rule in “this silence, this indifference, this integrity, the thud of something falling” (p. 133), and, in this context, three deaths occur in brackets: Mrs. Ramsay, rather suddenly; her daughter Prue Ramsay, in childbirth; her son Andrew, in the war.

In Ulysses, both Leopold Bloom and Stephen Dedalus are exiles. Bloom is an outsider, a Jew; he is cuckolded by his wife, shunned by others, the object of derision and anti-Semitism. Stephen, recently returned from Paris, is the loner, struggling with refusal to take the sacraments, with his art, with his dissatisfaction with the politics of Ireland; it is Stephen who says, “That is God. ... A shout in the street.” (2: 383-6)

K. in The Trial  is the most cut off from the world. The novel opens with K. excluded from society by the  accusation of guilt. We find no actual events in the novel. The Trial takes places devoid of time or place.

With this separation from society of the characters in these three novels, the movement to the self was perhaps inevitable and technique followed. It is my view that the interior monologue and what came to be known in Joyce’s work as the stream of consciousness arose from a philosophic need to move narrative inside the domain of the “self.”

Ulysses intimidates readers because of its lack of clear narrative thread—though I argue we always know what day it is and what time it is. But those who dismiss the novel argue fairly, I think, that Joyce purposely impedes a clear linear narrative thread. I argue that Joyce is questioning how one finds the narrative of one’s own life.

This question is bleakly explored in Kafka’s The Trial, where the move to the interior in terms of technique is also evident. In the Chapter “The Whipper,” the reader is, likely to conclude that he is inside K.’s mind when, on the day after observing his warders being beaten in the closet, K. opens the door again to find that “everything was still the same, exactly as he had found it the previous evening.” (p. 89) But Kafka does not allow the reader to know for sure that we are inside someone’s consciousness—as I would contend that both Woolf and Joyce do. K.’s seemingly impossible world could be the “real” world.

The critic Hassan comments, “If his [Kafka’s] art stands for anything, it may be this: the dark and clarity of consciousness, the impossible quest for self-apprehension. It is a quest that men neither abandon nor fully attain. Increasing their consciousness of existence, they manage only to intensify the predicament of consciousness.” (9)

Kafka, Woolf and Joyce in their fiction articulated the moral ambiguity that the “self,” Nietzsche’s subjective will “undeceived,” must face, and each then asserts by implication what Nietzsche did directly with these words: “… and with this we are on the ground of morality.” (10) 

What faces the main characters in the three novels I am examining is the struggle to find meaning in the face of Nietzsche’s “undeceived” morality, a nothingness, if you will.

But I assert here that in each novel, the struggle, the very fact that the writer put pen to paper, demonstrates a longing for a world where moral decisions can be—indeed, perhaps they must be—made alone. 

I ask, Is art one of the paths away from nihilism?

The critic Peter Faulkner comments, “It is perhaps the high seriousness of their devotion to art which finally distinguishes the modernists from their successors, who set more store by jokes and language-games.” I think he is certainly correct when he asserts that art was the one value the modernists “adhered to with total devotion in a universe which they knew and showed to be bewilderingly problematic.” (11) 

Woolf expresses faith in art as one of the best possible paths. I think she believed that morality could, in fact, arise out of the artistic endeavor. In her essay “Art and Life,” she said, “If aesthetic beauty is to affect other qualities in the human being, the emotion which we get from beauty must in some way induce us (for example) to do right.” (12)

To the Lighthouse ends with Lily’s completion of her painting and the words “I have had my vision,” as she lays down her brush. (p. 209) Woolf may very well believe that art is not the only way to understand “subject, object and the nature of reality” (p. 23), but it is one path clearly offered in this novel. It is a credit to the novel’s complexity that art is not presented as an “answer.” Clearly, Woolf sees the difficulties of existence as too great to conclude with an answer.

My point here is that she, nonetheless, continues the search, that she longs for a return—the indefinable lighthouse, perhaps? 

Joyce by choosing the Homeric myth of Ulysses, a story of returning, places Bloomsday in that context from the start. He concludes less forcefully in favor of art. Stephen Dedalus is more aesthete than humanist or spiritualist. It is Bloom who is defined as having “the touch of the artist.” As I assert in my essay here on Bloom, the touch of the artist is Joyce’s recognition of the artist’s sensitive nature, the artist’s inability to avoid seeing, to avoid hearing, to avoid the bombardment that is life in a city, in this case Dublin, Ireland. And I add here, that it is Bloom who is most humane, who searches and finds and connects with Stephen.

Perhaps that alone is commentary enough on the artist’s task. For in fact, Joyce chose to write the book and to give us Leopold Bloom, in all his flawed goodness. 

I believe Joyce in Ulysses moved beyond his position in A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, where he describes the artist who “like the God of the creation, remains within or behind or beyond or above his handiwork, invisible, refined out of existence, indifferent, paring his fingernails.” (13)

One may be tempted to assert that that is a good description of Joyce as author of Ulysses, but I find his embrace of humanity in this novel to belie that view. 

Perhaps author and critic Anthony Burgess said it best in these words that refute those who find nihilism in this novel:

“The greatest of man’s achievements, after language, is the community, and Joyce’s Dublin stands for every city-state that ever was. … To Joyce, a community is men meeting, drinking, arguing, recognizing each other in the streets, and one of his peculiar miracles is to make a real historical Dublin (the Dublin that flourished in summer 1904) an eternal pattern of human society. All men gain strength and even a certain nobility from belonging to it, and Bloom and Stephen are equally citizens of a blessed imperfect city, despite their intermittent sense of inner exile.” (14)

The key words here for me are “community”  and “inner exile,” for these are two of the opposing forces that Joyce is confronting: In other words, how to find a narrative for a life when one is exiled from his community. 

Kafka, in contrast creates no such community. K. is the ultimate outsider, and he remains so to the very last line of the novel before he is about to die, “‘Like a dog!’ he said; it was as if the shame of it must outlive him.” (p. 229)

But if there is shame, then there must also be guilt. And though we as readers may be unable to identify the nature of K.’s guilt, or for that matter of our own, a belief in guilt, is also by its very inference an assertion that a search is in place and that a longing for return to something, to some form of meaning, perhaps even to God, lies at the base of this novel. I offer for consideration Kafka’s short parable “Couriers”: 

They were offered the choice between becoming kings or the couriers of kings. The way children would, they all wanted to be couriers. Therefore there are only couriers who hurry about the world, shouting to each other—since there are no kings—messages that have become meaningless. They would like to put an end to this miserable life of theirs but they dare not because of their oaths of service. (15)

What is one to make of the “oath of service”? Kafka provides no answer, but do we not hear echoes of Nietzsche’s words here: “… the meaning of all this, should we dare to comprehend it, is a will to nothingness, a will running counter to life … . ”? (16) 

Could not Kafka’s oath of service be a service to life? In K.’s shame and in the couriers’ oath to service, I find a longing to return to a philosophy of meaning in the face of nihilism. Again, Kafka put pen to paper. He wrote.

Woolf, Joyce, and Kafka wrote monumentally important works that articulate moral ambiguity as a reflection of the philosophic thought of their time, but there is also no question they affirmed—indeed with the force of art—that the struggle to find meaning continued in their work and that struggle continues when we choose to read them, and where we in fact may be transformed by that experience. 

I am not saying that art can replace God, but I am saying that the search for meaning makes a difference in the world. It defies nihilism by the very act of making something, something “other,” that is of the self but not the self.

A writer’s work, the novel in a trunk in the attic, the poems unpublished and in a drawer, the painting stored against the wall may very well be a call with no hope of an answer. But each is still a call.

We know that art gets made even under the most dire of circumstances and that it gets made most often with no hope even of compensation, let alone fame. If the human spirit can’t help but make art, then hope, not despair, resides in that effort.

Footnotes:

1.      Friedrich Nietzsche, The Portable Nietzsche, The Gay Science, “The Madman,” ed. and trans. Walter Kaufmann (New York: The Penguin Group, paperbound edition, 1976), p. 95.

2.      Peter Faulkner, Modernism (London: Methuen & Co Ltd, 1977), p. 69.

3.      Randall Stevenson, Modernist Fiction: An Introduction (Hertfordshire, England: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1992), p. 77.

4.      Stephen Spender, The Struggle of the Modern(California: University of California Press, 1963), p. 208.

5.      Gerhard Kurz, “Nietzsche, Freud, and Kafka,” trans. Neil Donahue, Reading Kafka, ed. Mark Anderson (New York: Schocken Books Inc., 1989), p. 138.

6.      Kaufmann, Nietzsche, p. 6.

7.      Ihab Hassan, The Dismemberment of Orpheus: Toward a Postmodern Literature (Wisconsin: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1982), p. 143.

8.      Virginia Woolf, Collected Essays, Volume IV (New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc., 1967), p. 196.

9.      Hassan, The Dismemberment of Orpheus, p. 121.

10.  Kaufmann, Nietzsche, p. 449.

11.  Faulkner, Modernism, p. 75.

12.  Virginia Woolf, The Essays of Virginia Woolf, Vol. I, 1904-1912, ed. Andrew McNeillie (London: The Hogarth Press, 1986), p.277.

13.  James Joyce, A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man (New York: The Viking Press, 1965), p. 215.

14.  Anthony Burgess, Re Joyce (New York: Ballantine Books, 1966), p. 230.

15.  Franz Kafka, Parables and Paradoxes: in German and English, trans. of “Couriers,” Clement Greenberg (New York: Schocken Books, 1971), p. 175.

16.  Kaufmann, Nietzsche, p. 454.




     

 


This article is brought to you by the author who owns the copyright to the text.

Should you want to support the author’s creative work you can use the PayPal “Donate” button below.

Your donation is a transaction between you and the author. The proceeds go directly to the author’s PayPal account in full less PayPal’s commission.

Facts & Arts neither receives information about you, nor of your donation, nor does Facts & Arts receive a commission.

Facts & Arts does not pay the author, nor takes paid by the author, for the posting of the author's material on Facts & Arts. Facts & Arts finances its operations by selling advertising space.

 

 

Browse articles by author

More Essays

May 19th 2022
EXTRACTS: "Thus experimental creativity could be witnessed, but not verbalized.  When five leading Abstract Expressionist painters founded an art school in New York in the late 1940s, they offered no formal courses, because, as Robert Motherwell explained, "in a basic sense art cannot be taught." ------ "Conceptual artists are ...... more inclined to use written texts to accompany their works in other genres.  In 1883, Vincent van Gogh wrote to his brother, "One of these days I will write you a letter;  I shall write it carefully and try to make it short, but say everything I think necessary."
May 17th 2022
EXTRACT: "Unfortunately, it’s common for dark triad personalities to become leaders. ..... their ruthlessness and ability to manipulate means they attain positions of power quite easily. When a “dark” leader attains power, conscientious, moral people rapidly fall away. A government operating under these conditions soon becomes what the Polish psychologist Andrzej Lobaczewski called a “pathocracy” – an administration made up of ruthless individuals devoid of integrity and morality. This happened with Donald Trump’s presidency, as the “adults in the room” gradually headed for the exit, leaving no one but staffers defined by their personal allegiance to Trump. A similar decay in standards has occurred in the UK."
May 11th 2022
EXTRACT: "The proportion of US electricity deriving from wind and solar in the month of April climbed to 20%. Thus, the renewables total was 26.5 if we add in hydro. This statistic is unprecedented."
Apr 24th 2022
EXTRACT: "Every year, around 12,000 men in the UK die from prostate cancer, but many more die with prostate cancer than from it. So knowing whether the disease is going to advance rapidly or not is important for knowing who to treat." ...... "For some years, we have known that pathogens (bacteria and viruses) can cause cancer. We know, for example, that Helicobacter pylori is associated with stomach cancer and that the human papillomavirus (HPV) can cause cervical cancer." ....... "....we have identified five types (genera) of bacteria linked to aggressive prostate cancer." ...... "We examined prostate tissue and urine samples from over 600 men with and without prostate cancer," ..... "....men who had one or more of the bacteria were nearly three times more likely to see their early stage cancer progress to advanced disease, compared with men who had none of the bacteria in their urine or prostate."
Apr 13th 2022
EXTARCTS: "Steve Jobs dreaded turning 30, because he knew it would be fatal to his creativity: "It's rare that you see an artist in his 30s or 40s able to contribute something amazing." ....... "When Ford introduced the Model T, he was 45 years old" ...... "Ford’s Model T arrived only after a series of earlier cars – Models A, B, C, K, N, R, and S." .... "Sam Walton opened Wal-Mart No. 1 in Rogers, Arkansas, at 44, and discovered “that there was much, much more business out there in small-town American than anybody, including me, had ever dreamed of.” At 53, Warren Buffett wrote in his annual letter to Berkshire Hathaway shareholders that “your chairman, always a quick study, required only 20 years to recognize how important it was to buy good businesses.” "
Mar 29th 2022
EXTRACT: ".... Christie's web site calls Shot Sage Blue Marilyn [1964], to be auctioned in May, 'among the most iconic paintings in history', " ------ "Andy Warhol's annus mirabilis was not 1964, but 1962. This is recognized both by the market and by scholars. Thus in a paper published in the Journal of Applied Economics, Simone Lenzu and I found that in all auctions held during 1965-2015, the average price of Warhol's paintings executed in 1964 was significantly lower than the average price of those he made in 1962. And in a survey of 61 textbooks of art history published during 1991- 2015, whose authors included such eminent scholars as Martin Kemp and Rosalind Krauss, we found that fully 45% of the total of 137 illustrations of Warhol's paintings were of works from 1962, compared to only 12% of works from 1964. Thus not only do collectors value Warhol's works of 1962 more highly than those of 1964, but so do scholars of art history,.... "
Mar 29th 2022
EXTRACTS:".....there is plenty of space to scale. For internet-based businesses, the addressable total market is often large. In many areas, such as software, it spans the globe. Chinese estimates indicate that the average distance between seller and buyer on e-commerce platforms is roughly 1,000 kilometers (621 miles), compared to five kilometers for a traditional retail or service business." ------- "While the internet has removed many geographical barriers, high-growth companies cannot emerge just anywhere. In fact, though such firms can be found in more countries than ever, they remain concentrated in entrepreneurial hotspots. For example, of the 24 unicorns in Germany (as of March 2022), 17 are based in Berlin and five in Munich. Of France’s top 24 unicorns, 19 are based in Paris and one in a Paris suburb." ------ "Tech entrepreneurship has become global, but its beating heart remains local."
Mar 27th 2022
EXTRACTS: " We are supposed to be living in a post-ideological era, where everyone one is a cynic, not so gullible as to believe in anything anymore, least of all in the quaint notion of objective truth. This rejection of truth as such is among the great disasters to have befallen our relations with each other and between nations.  We appear to be beyond truth’s demise – we are now witnessing its unpleasant putrefaction and decay." ------ " If we want to grasp how ideology functions in America today, there is no better place to look than at the phenomenon of Trumpism. While he may be only a symptom, Trump himself is the quintessential embodiment of America’s moral and epistemic decline. " ------ "By its disavowal of truth and perpetuation of lies for the sake of self-aggrandizement, Trumpism represents an existential threat to this country and to the future of the Republic. It is a cancer that threatens whatever is good and decent in American life. " ----- "All they know is negative freedom – freedom from – but ignore the need for positive freedom, the freedom to… as in the freedom to flourish, to realize oneself in the world; to make and re-make oneself and the world through action."
Feb 14th 2022
EXTRACT: "In the decades since its inception, there has been heavy criticism directed towards the War on Drugs. These complaints include the increased incarceration rates, the increase in the number of prisoners in jail due to nonviolent offenses, uneven sentencing guidelines often based on the drug type and race, and suggestions of a racist component in terms of who was targeted by law enforcement. Various studies show that instead of reducing crime, the strict sentencing guidelines created more criminals and undermined many of the communities most strictly targeted by law enforcement. Long sentences for non-violent offenses made it difficult for those released to find work and weakened their bonds with family and their broader community."
Feb 2nd 2022
EXTRACT: "......... there are countries that have had a relatively high number of infections but which have still managed to keep their death numbers low – countries like Japan. It’s had 17,612 infections per million people yet only 146 deaths per million. This is despite almost one in three people in Japan being over the age of 65 and so at greater risk of severe COVID (the average age of people dying from COVID is over 80). What has kept the death rate there down? A recent Japenese study has proposed an answer. It reports that the risk of people dying of COVID in Japan is related to the microbes present in their guts. "
Jan 26th 2022
EXTRACT: "Then there was a revolution. In 1964, Bob Dylan created a new kind of popular music. The simple, clear love songs ...... were replaced by complex and opaque lyrics, filled with literary allusions and symbolism. Dylan rejected the role of craftsman: "I'm an artist. I try to create art." Nor were his songs intended to be universal: "My songs were written with me in mind." "
Dec 13th 2021
EXTRACT: " We all know that Father Christmas would struggle to deliver presents to everyone around the world without the help of his magical reindeer. But why were they chosen to pull the sleigh rather than any other animal? It turns out that the biology of reindeer makes them ideal for the job. Here are five reasons why."
Dec 4th 2021
EXTRACT: "Planting more forests is a potent tool for mitigating the climate crisis, but forests are like complex machines with millions of parts. Tree planting can cause ecological damage when carried out poorly, particularly if there is no commitment to diversity of planting. Following Darwin’s thinking, there is growing awareness that the best, healthiest forests are ones with the greatest variety of trees - and trees of various ages."
Nov 19th 2021
EXTRACTS: "At a time when the struggle between authoritarianism and democracy is so intense, if not fateful for the future of democracies, NATO and the EU must warn these countries [Editor's note: Poland and Hungary, EU and NATO, Turkey NATO] that they are on the precipice of being kicked out if they do not change their governing practice. They must be required to restore the principles of democracy by upholding universal human rights and abiding the rule of law, or else they will forfeit their membership and suffer from the consequences of their crimes." ------ "A narcissistic leader, such as Trump, whose hunger for power seems to know no limit, has happily sacrificed the good of the country on the altar of his twisted ego. America’s democracy cannot be repaired unless he and those who helped him are held accountable and face the weight of the law."
Nov 18th 2021
EXTRACT: "Many people who go through intense trauma, for example, become deeper and stronger than they were before. They may even undergo a sudden and radical transformation that makes life more meaningful and fulfilling. Indeed, research shows that between half and one-third of all people experience significant personal development after traumatic events, such as bereavement, serious illness, accidents or divorce. Over time, they may feel a new sense of inner strength and confidence and gratitude for life and other people. They may develop more intimate and authentic relationships and have a wider perspective, with a clear sense of what is important in life and what isn’t. In psychology, this is referred to as “post-traumatic growth”. "
Nov 11th 2021
EXTRACT: "Notably, Murdoch thinks that really knowing or understanding another person is a difficult task: “It is a task to come to see the world as it is”. According to the Freudian psychology Murdoch subscribes to in The Sovereignty of Good, humans are prone to “fantasy” – refusing to face the truth because it can damage our fragile egos."
Nov 9th 2021
EXTRACT: "People do not believe false information because they are ignorant. There are many factors at work, but most researchers would agree that the belief in misinformation has little to do with the amount of knowledge a person possesses. Misinformation is a prime example of motivated reasoning. People tend to arrive at the conclusions they want to reach as long as they can construct seemingly reasonable justifications for these outcomes."
Oct 28th 2021
EXTRACTS: "Brood with me on the latest delay of the full release of the records pertaining to the murder of President John F. Kennedy in Dallas on November 22, 1963. That was 58 years ago." -----"Mark my words: ...... No one who remembers 1963 will live to see the US government admit the full truth about Kennedy’s murder. And the American people’s faith in democracy will continue to fade. There is only one way to prevent this, and that is to release every record, withholding nothing – and to do it now."
Oct 27th 2021
EXTRACT: "..... we may defy the warnings of modern medicine, convinced of our own superiority. Researchers at the University of Chicago Divinity School reported half of their participants, all of whom indicated some religious affiliation, agreed with the statement “God will protect me from being infected”. To cope with our dread of death, we delude ourselves into thinking we are invincible: death might happen to other people, but not to me."
Oct 22nd 2021
EXTRACT: "Wes Anderson’s new film The French Dispatch is about the final issue of a magazine that specialises in long-form articles about the goings-on in the fictional town of Ennui-sur-Blasé. The film is an anthology of shorts representing three of the articles. A piece by the magazine’s art critic (Tilda Swinton) explores the life and late success of the abstract artist Moses Rosenthaler (Benicio Del Toro). Talented from a young age, Rosenthaler pursued art with a dogged determination that drove him to slowly lose his mind." ---- "Like everything else, mental illness is understood within the context of its time. In their study of melancholy and genius Born Under Saturn, the art historians Margot and Rudolf Wittkower show how Renaissance artists embraced mental alienation. This was shown by a withdrawn, slothful gloom. Such heavy sadness was considered both the symptom and the price of divine inspiration." ---- "Today, the association of creativity and mental illness often implies regression from an adult and orderly state of mind to one that is primal, impulsive, or infantile. The artist in Anderson’s film is such an example: he is noisy, impetuous, and extravagantly mad. And it is while he is at his “maddest” that he paints his best work." ---- "Here I explore the work of four painters whose work has been shaped by various mental illnesses, highlighting how the idea of the “mad artist” need not be tied up with a loss of control but rather a bid to gain it."