Jan 11th 2014

The writer as creator: Wallace Stevens, Part three - Stevens and the Absolute

by Mary L. Tabor

Mary L. Tabor worked most of her life so that one day she would be able to write full-time. She quit her corporate job when she was 50, put on a backpack and hiking boots to trudge across campus with folks more than half her age. She’s the author of the novel Who by Fire, the memoir (Re)Making Love: a sex after sixty story and the collection of connected short stories The Woman Who Never Cooked. She’s a born and bred liberal who writes lyric essays on the arts for one of the most conservative papers in the country and she hosts a show interviewing authors on Rare Bird Radio. In the picture Mary L.Tabor


Editor's Note: This is a five part series - Please click here for part One.


To review, from the end of part two of my five-part essay: If the writer who creates in words and whose subject is the nature and meaning of existence—and I believe this is Wallace Stevens’ subject—if this writer concludes there is nothing but human consciousness, then must he not, at the very least, confront faith as an insurmountable abyss?

The question I am trying to answer for myself is this: Has Stevens confronted the implications of his conclusion? 

The more vexing question I pose is: Doesn’t any serious writer need to address the question of the nature of creation and the relationship of that act to the questions of existence and God, particularly if he, the poet, chooses to address these questions in his lectures and essays?

Here is the full text of the poem I discuss next “The Man on the Dump.”

 

The Man On The Dump

Day creeps down. The moon is creeping up.

The sun is a corbeil of flowers the moon Blanche

Places there, a bouquet. Ho-ho ... The dump is full

Of images. Days pass like papers from a press.

The bouquets come here in the papers. So the sun,

And so the moon, both come, and the janitor’s poems

Of every day, the wrapper on the can of pears,

The cat in the paper-bag, the corset, the box

From Esthonia: the tiger chest, for tea.

The freshness of night has been fresh a long time.

The freshness of morning, the blowing of day, one says

That it puffs as Cornelius Nepos reads, it puffs

More than, less than or it puffs like this or that.

The green smacks in the eye, the dew in the green

Smacks like fresh water in a can, like the sea

On a cocoanut—how many men have copied dew

For buttons, how many women have covered themselves

With dew, dew dresses, stones and chains of dew, heads

Of the floweriest flowers dewed with the dewiest dew.

One grows to hate these things except on the dump.

 

Now, in the time of spring (azaleas, trilliums,

Myrtle, viburnums, daffodils, blue phlox),

Between that disgust and this, between the things

That are on the dump (azaleas and so on)

And those that will be (azaleas and so on),

One feels the purifying change. One rejects

The trash.

 

That’s the moment when the moon creeps up

To the bubbling of bassoons. That’s the time

One looks at the elephant-colorings of tires.

Everything is shed; and the moon comes up as the moon

(All its images are in the dump) and you see

As a man (not like an image of a man),

You see the moon rise in the empty sky.

 

One sits and beats an old tin can, lard pail.

One beats and beats for that which one believes.

That’s what one wants to get near. Could it after all

Be merely oneself, as superior as the ear

To a crow’s voice? Did the nightingale torture the ear,

Pack the heart and scratch the mind? And does the ear

Solace itself in peevish birds? Is it peace,

Is it a philosopher’s honeymoon, one finds

On the dump? Is it to sit among mattresses of the dead,

Bottles, pots, shoes and grass and murmur aptest eve:

Is it to hear the blatter of grackles and say

Invisible priest; is it to eject, to pull

The day to pieces and cry stanza my stone?

Where was it one first heard of the truth? The the.

 

In “The Man on the Dump” (1938)[i], Stevens uses nonsense word play and speaks of the philosopher, the priest and the truth. He gives us nonsense in “Ho-ho ... The dump is full/ of images.” And word play: “With dew, dew dresses, stones and chains of dew, heads/ Of the floweriest flowers dewed with the dewiest dew.” And then “bubbling bassoons,” “elephant coverings of tires.” The powerful last stanza provides a stunning contrast:

 

One sits and beats an old tin can, lard pail.

One beats and beats for that which one believes.

That’s what one wants to get near. Could it after all

 Be merely oneself, as superior as the ear

To a crow’s voice? Did the nightingale torture the ear,

Pack the heart and scratch the mind? And does the ear

Solace itself in peevish birds? Is it peace,

Is it a philosopher’s honeymoon, one finds

 On the dump? Is it to sit among mattresses of the dead,

Bottles, pots, shoes and grass and murmur aptest eve:

Is it to hear the blatter of gackles and say

Invisible priest; is it to eject, to pull

The day to pieces and cry stanza my stone?

Where was it one first heard the truth? The the.

 

I ask, Why is Stevens posing these questions?

Critic Harold Bloom answers my question this way: “The suggested answer to the six not-quite-rhetorical questions turns out to be a unanimous if always hesitant ‘yes.’ Yes, it is oneself, a superior self.”[ii] 

With the final “The the” of the poem, it seems to me that Stevens is saying language is “where it is,” as Gass says, “defining, naming.”

But Stevens’ subject here is “the truth.” He may very well be rejecting the “dewiest dew,” “the floweriest flower,” and he may very well be saying one must descend to the images of the dump to define and name, but, if Bloom is correct, a superior self emerges with “The the”—a superior self who creates the world. 

Stevens speaks to the issue of language in his 1942 lecture and essay “The Noble Rider and the Sound of Words.” But first he places his discussion in clearly theological terms when he makes clear “that art sets out to express the human soul.”[iii]

The poet creates a world: “[W]hat makes the poet the potent figure that he is, or was, or ought to be, is that he creates the world to which we turn incessantly and without knowing it and that he gives to life the supreme fictions without which we are unable to conceive of it.” With that said, he talks about the role of language as he will do in later essays: “A poet’s words are of things that do not exist without the words.”[iv]

In 1943 Stevens extends the role of the poet further in the essay “The Figure of the Youth as Virile Poet”: 

“In philosophy we attempt to approach truth through reason. Obviously this is a statement of convenience. If we say that in poetry we attempt to approach truth through the imagination, this too, is a statement of convenience. We must conceive of poetry as at least the equal of philosophy.”[v]

He then confirms that he is, in fact, creating his own world: “Summed up our position at the moment is that the poet must get rid of the hieratic in everything that concerns him and must move constantly in the direction of the credible. He creates his unreal out of what is real.”[vi] 

And he confirms again that his issue is the nature of existence: “The pleasure is the pleasure of powers that create a truth that cannot be arrived at by the reason alone, a truth that the poet recognizes by sensation.” [vii]

Here is what I consider to be his most telling statement in this essay of the poet’s role: “What we have called elevation and elation on the part of the poet, which he communicates to the reader, may not be so much elevation as an incandescence of the intelligence and so more than ever a triumph over the incredible.”[viii] 

Does this not have the ring of the theological, of Bloom’s “superior self”? On my continuum from Gass to Ozick, Stevens moves closer to literature as idol.

In the long, masterful poem “The Auroras of Autumn” (1948), the poem I will focus on next, and which I place in his later years along with the essays, written shortly after, I believe, Stevens tests the limits of language in poetry and questions “the triumph over the incredible.” 

In 1948 Stevens wrote the essay “Imagination as Value”[ix]; in 1951 he wrote three essays: “The Relations Between Poetry and Painting,”[x] “A Collect of Philosophy,”[xi] and “Two or Three Ideas.”[xii]

In these essays Stevens once again confirms his subject as the nature of existence, but he also begins to question the limits of language.

I do not think, however, that he confronts the issue of faith as an insurmountable abyss. He does not make what I view as the essential philosophical move forward that all he has written seems to call out for. 

In “Imagination as Value” he comes for the first time, closer to the essential question: What do we do when faith is not possible?

He does confront his own world, the world he has created in his poetry, when he asks the question, “What, then is it to live in the mind with the imagination ... ?” 

But his answer is anything but a confrontation with the abyss when faith is not possible or seems, at best, doubtful.

He says, “only reason stands between it [the imagination] and the reality for the two are engaged in a struggle. We have no particular interest in this struggle ... . [T]he more we think about it the less able we are to see that it has any heroic aspects or that the spirit is at stake or that it may involve the loss of the world (my italics).”[xiii] 

But that is exactly the point—the struggle between reason and reality, the choice of the self-referential world of the imagination does indeed involve a “loss of the world,” of belief in the Absolute, in God.

He sounds like Gass when he says “Poetry does not address itself to beliefs.”[xiv] And he sounds like Ozick when he says, “The constant discussion of imagination and reality is largely a discussion not for the purposes of life but for the purposes of arts and letters.”[xv] 

But he does not do what both Gass and Ozick do, i.e., place the act of writing in the context of belief or its loss.

He says, sounding like Gass that “it [poetic value] is not the value of knowledge. It is not the value of faith. It is the value of the imagination.”[xvi] 

But then he says this—in striking contrast to Gass—“If the imagination is the faculty by which we import the unreal into what is real, its value is the value of the way of thinking by which we project the idea of God into the idea of man.”[xvii]

Is this not literature as idol if Stevens does not profoundly confront what he has rejected? If there is no God, the imagination is not God. It is, at the very least, the absence of God. And that needs saying, I would think.

One might argue that Stevens comes close to saying this in “The Relations Between Poetry and Painting”: 

“Modern reality is a reality of decreation, in which our revelations are not the revelations of belief, but precious portents of our own powers. The greatest truth we could hope to discover, in whatever field we discovered it, is that man’s truth is the final resolution of everything. Poets and painters alike today make that assumption and this is what gives them the validity and serious dignity that become them as among those that seek wisdom, seek understanding.”[xviii]

I would agree that our human and poetic revelations are not the revelations of belief, but, I am troubled by the words “man’s truth,” “the validity and serious dignity” of painters and poets. 

Gass, who has confronted the absence of God, has no such illusions, and neither at the other end of the continuum, does the believer Ozick.

Stevens may not, as is generally believed, have rejected the idea of God. How could he? I ask. He has not confronted the question.


A bibliography in five parts - Please click here for part four.

[i] Stevens, Collected Poems, pp. 210-203.

[ii] Bloom, Wallace Stevens: The Poems of Our Climate, p. 147.

[iii] Wallace Stevens, The Necessary Angel (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1951), p. 30. 

[iv] Ibid., pp. 31-32.

[v] Ibid., pp. 41-42. 

[vi] Ibid., p. 58.

[vii] Ibid. 

[viii] Ibid., p. 60.

[ix] Stevens, Necessary Angel, pp. 133-156. 

[x] Ibid., pp. 159-176.

[xi] Stevens, Opus Posthumous, pp. 183--202. 

[xii] Ibid., pp. 202-216.

[xiii] Stevens, Necessary Angel, p. 141. 

[xiv] Ibid., p. 144.

[xv] Ibid., p. 147.

[xvi] Ibid., p.149. 

[xvii] Ibid., p. 150.

[xviii] Ibid., p. 175.

 



  

 


This article is brought to you by the author who owns the copyright to the text.

Should you want to support the author’s creative work you can use the PayPal “Donate” button below.

Your donation is a transaction between you and the author. The proceeds go directly to the author’s PayPal account in full less PayPal’s commission.

Facts & Arts neither receives information about you, nor of your donation, nor does Facts & Arts receive a commission.

Facts & Arts does not pay the author, nor takes paid by the author, for the posting of the author's material on Facts & Arts. Facts & Arts finances its operations by selling advertising space.

 

 

Browse articles by author

More Essays

May 1st 2021
EXTRACT: " The sad reality is that the Mizrahim (Jews of Middle Eastern and North African descent) were discriminated against from the day of Israel’s inception, whose Ashkenazi (European Jewish) leaders viewed them as intellectually inferior, “backward,” and “too Arab,” and treated them as such, largely because the Ashkenazim agenda was to maintain their upper-class status while controlling the levers of power, which remain prevalent to this day." ..... " The greatest heartbreaking outcome is that for yet another generation of Israelis, growing up in these debilitating conditions has a direct effect on their cognitive development. A 2015 study published in Nature Neuroscience found that “family income is significantly correlated with children’s brain size…increases in income were associated with the greatest increases in brain surface area among the poorest children.” "
Apr 25th 2021
EXTRACT: "We all owe Farah Nabulsi an enormous debt of gratitude. In a short 24-minute film, The Present, she has exposed the oppressive indecency of the Israeli occupation while telling the deeply moving story of a Palestinian family. What is especially exciting is that after winning awards at a number of international film festivals​, Ms. Nabulsi has been nominated for an Academy Award for this remarkable work of art. " 
Apr 25th 2021
EXTRACT: "When I crashed to the floor of my home in Bordeaux recently after two months of Covid-19 dizziness, I was annoyed. The next day I collapsed again. Now I was worried. What I didn’t know was that my brain was sloshing around inside my skull, causing a mild concussion. Nor did I know that I was in for a whole new world of weird and wonderful hallucinations."
Apr 13th 2021
EXTRACT: "Overall, our review has found that there isn’t evidence to back up the claims that veganism is good for your heart. But that is partly because there are few studies ....... But veganism may have other health benefits. Vegans have been found to have a healthier weight and lower blood glucose levels than those who consume meat and dairy. They are also less likely to develop cancer, high blood pressure and diabetes. "
Apr 8th 2021
EXTRACT: "Pollock’s universe, the universe of Mural, cannot be said to be a rational universe. Nor is it simply devoid of all sense. It is not a purely imaginary world, although in it everything is in a constant state of flux. Mural invokes one of the oldest questions of philosophy, a question going back to the Pre-Socratic philosophers Parmenides and Heraclitus – namely, whether the nature of Reality constitutes unchanging permanence or constant movement and flux. For Pollock, the only thing that is truly unchanging is change itself. The only certainty is that all is uncertain."
Apr 8th 2021
EXTRACT: "Many present day politicians appear to have psychopathic and narcissistic traits too. It’s easy to spot such leaders, because they are always authoritarian, following hardline policies. They try to subvert democracy, to reduce the freedom of the press and clamp down on dissent. They are obsessed with national prestige, and often persecute minority groups. And they are always corrupt and lacking in moral principles."
Apr 6th 2021
EXTRACT: "This has led some to claim that not just half, but perhaps nearly all advertising money is wasted, at least online. There are similar results outside of commerce. One review of field experiments in political campaigning argued “the best estimate of the effects of campaign contact and advertising on Americans’ candidates choices in general elections is zero”. Zero!"
Mar 30th 2021
EXTRACT: "The Father is an extraordinary film, from Florian Zeller’s 2012 play entitled Le Père and directed by Zeller. I’m here to tell you why it is a ‘must see’." EDITOR'S NOTE: The official trailer is attached to the review.
Mar 28th 2021
EXTRACT: "Picasso was 26 in 1907, when he completed the Demoiselles; de Kooning was 48 in 1952, when he finished Woman I.  The difference in their ages was not an accident, for studies of hundreds of painters have revealed a striking regularity - the conceptual painters who preconceive their paintings, from Raphael to Warhol, consistently make their greatest contributions earlier in their careers than experimental painters, from Rembrandt to Pollock, who paint directly, without preparatory studies."
Mar 26th 2021
EXTRACT: "Mental toughness levels are influenced by many different factors. While genetics are partly responsible, a person’s environment is also relevant. For example, both positive experiences while you’re young and mental toughness training programmes have been found to make people mentally tougher."
Mar 20th 2021

The city of Homs has been ravaged by war, leaving millions of people homeless an

Mar 20th 2021
EXTRACT: "There are two main rival models of ethics: one is based on rights, the other on duties. The rights-based model, which traces its philosophical origins to the work of John Locke in the 17th century, starts from the assumption that individuals have rights ....... According to this approach, duties are related to rights, but only in a subordinate role. My right to health implies a duty on my country to provide some healthcare services, to the best of its abilities. This is arguably the dominant interpretation when philosophers talk about rights, including human rights." ........ "Your right to get sick, or to risk getting sick, could imply a duty on others to look after you during your illness." ..... "The pre-eminence of rights in our moral compass has vindicated unacceptable levels of selfishness. It is imperative to undertake a fundamental duty not to get sick, and to do everything in our means to avoid causing others to get sick. Morally speaking, duties should come first and should not be subordinated to rights." ..... "Putting duties before rights is not a new, revolutionary idea. In fact it is one of the oldest rules in the book of ethics. Primum non nocere, or first do no harm, is the core principle in the Hippocratic Oath historically taken by doctors, widely attributed to the ancient Greek philosopher and physician Hippocrates. It is also a fundamental principle in the moral philosophy of the Roman statesman Marcus Tullius Cicero, who in De Officiis (On Duties) argues that the first task of justice is to prevent men and women from causing harm to others."
Mar 18th 2021
EXTRACT: "Several studies have recently compared the difference between antibodies produced straight after a coronavirus infection and those that can be detected six months later. The findings have been both impressive and reassuring. Although there are fewer coronavirus-specific antibodies detectable in the blood six months after infection, the antibodies that remain have undergone significant changes. …….. the “mature” antibodies were better at recognising the variants."
Mar 15th 2021
EXTRACT: "Like Shakespeare, Goya sees evil as something existing in itself – indeed, the horror of evil arises precisely from its excess. It overflows and refuses to be contained by or integrated into our categories of reason or comprehension. By its very nature, evil refuses to remain within prescribed bounds – to remain fixed, say, within an economy where evil is counterbalanced by good. Evil is always excess of evil." ....... "Nowhere is this more evident than in war. Goya offers us a profound and sustained meditation on the nature of war ........ The image of a Napoleonic soldier gazing indifferently on a man who has been summarily hanged, probably by his own belt, expresses the tragedy of war – its dehumanization of both war’s victims and victors."
Mar 14th 2021
EXTRACT: "A blockchain company has bought a piece of Banksy artwork and burnt it. But instead of destroying the value of the art, they claim to have made it more valuable, because it was sold as a piece of blockchain art. The company behind the stunt, called Injective Protocol, bought the screen print from a New York gallery. They then live-streamed its burning on the Twitter account BurntBanksy. But why would anyone buy a piece of art just to burn it? Understanding the answer requires us to delve into the tricky world of blockchain or “NFT” art."
Mar 14th 2021
EXTRACT: "Exercise is good for your health at every age – and you can reap the benefits no matter how late in life you start. But our latest research has shown another benefit of being physically active throughout life. We found that in the US, people who were more physically active as teenagers and throughout adulthood had lower healthcare costs."
Mar 10th 2021
EXTRACT: "Although around one in 14 people over 65 have Alzheimer’s disease, there’s still no cure, and no way to prevent the disease from progressing. But a recent study may bring us one step closer to preventing Alzheimer’s. The trial, which was conducted on animals, has found a specific molecule can prevent the buildup of a toxic protein known to cause Alzheimer’s in the brain."
Feb 24th 2021
EXTRACT: "The art historian George Kubler observed that scholars in the humanities “pretend to despise measurement because of its ‘scientific’ nature.” As if to illustrate his point Robert Storr, former dean of Yale’s School of Art, declared that artistic success is “completely unquantifiable.” In fact, however, artistic success can be quantified, in several ways. One of these is based on the analysis of texts produced by art scholars, and this measure can give us a systematic understanding of how changes in recent art have produced changes in the canon of art history."
Feb 24th 2021
EXTRACT: "The most politically sensitive option we looked at was the virus escaping from a laboratory. We concluded this was extremely unlikely."
Feb 16th 2021
EXTRACT: ".... these men were completely unaware that they had put their lives in the hands of doctors who not only had no intention of healing them but were committed to observing them until the final autopsy – since it was believed that an autopsy alone could scientifically confirm the study’s findings. As one researcher wrote in a 1933 letter to a colleague, “As I see, we have no further interest in these patients until they die.” ...... The unquestionable ethical failure of Tuskegee is one with which we must grapple, and of which we must never lose sight, lest we allow such moral disasters to repeat themselves. "